CMOS-based chips are the most common IC chips in the electronics industry.
The digital revolution that produced personal computers, Internet networks, and
telecommunications strongly drives the demands of CMOS IC chips. In this
chapter, four complete CMOS processes are examined. First is the CMOS process
from the early 1980s, with only one layer of aluminum alloy interconnection. Next
is the CMOS with a four-layer aluminum alloy interconnection used in the 1990s.
After that is an advanced CMOS process with copper and low-Κ interconnections,
used in the first decade of the 2000s, and the last is the state-of-the-art CMOS
technology with high-κ metal gates (HKMGs), stress engineering, and copper low-κ interconnections.
Memory chips are one of most important parts of IC products. They are also
important drivers of IC technological developments. The manufacturing processes
of array cells of DRAM and NAND flash chips are quite different from CMOS
processes. Thus, two sections of this chapter are dedicated to describing their
processes. The periphery devices of both DRAM and NAND flash chips are very
similar to normal CMOS processes.