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21 April 2017 Femtosecond laser writing of new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses (Conference Presentation)
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Femtosecond laser writing in glasses is a growing field of research and development in photonics, since it provides a versatile, robust and efficient approach to directly address 3D material structuring. Laser-glass interaction process has been studied for many years, especially the local changes of the refractive index that have been classified by three distinct types (types I, II and III, respectively). These refractive index modifications are widely used for the creation of photonics devices such as waveguides [1], couplers, photonic crystals to fabricate integrated optical functions in glasses for photonic applications as optical circuits or integrated sensors.

Femtosecond laser writing in a home-developed silver containing zinc phosphate glasses induces the creation of fluorescent silver clusters distributed around the laser-glass interaction voxel [2]. In this paper, we introduce a new type of refractive index modification in glasses. It is based on the creation of these photo-induced silver clusters allowing a local change in the refractive index Δn = 5×10-3, which is sufficient for the creation of waveguides and photonics devices. The wave guiding process in our glasses along these structures with original geometry is demonstrated for wavelengths from visible to NIR [3], giving a promising access to integrated optical circuits in these silver containing glasses. Moreover, the characterization of the waveguides is presented, including their original geometry, the refractive index change, the mode profile, the estimation of propagation losses and a comparison with simulation results.

1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).

2. M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114, 15584-15588 (2010).

3. S. Danto, F. Désévédavy, Y. Petit, J.-C. Desmoulin, A. Abou Khalil, C. Strutynski, M. Dussauze, F. Smektala, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, Advanced Optical Materials 4, 162-168 (2016).
Conference Presentation
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Alain Abou Khalil, Jean-Philippe Bérubé, Sylvain Danto, Jean-Charles Desmoulin, Thierry Cardinal, Yannick G. Petit, Lionel Canioni, and Réal Vallée "Femtosecond laser writing of new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses (Conference Presentation)", Proc. SPIE 10092, Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI, 1009209 (21 April 2017);

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