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20 February 2017 Extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique
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Proceedings Volume 10110, Photonic Instrumentation Engineering IV; 101101S (2017)
Event: SPIE OPTO, 2017, San Francisco, California, United States
A 3dimensional (3D) imaging is an important area which can be applied to face detection, gesture recognition, and 3D reconstruction. In this paper, extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique is presented. An active pixel sensor (APS) with in-pixel aperture has been developed for this purpose. In the conventional camera systems using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, an aperture is located behind the camera lens. However, in our proposed camera system, the aperture implemented by metal layer of CMOS process is located on the White (W) pixel which means a pixel without any color filter on top of the pixel. 4 types of pixels including Red (R), Green (G), Blue (B), and White (W) pixels were used for pixel aperture technique. The RGB pixels produce a defocused image with blur, while W pixels produce a focused image. The focused image is used as a reference image to extract the depth information for 3D imaging. This image can be compared with the defocused image from RGB pixels. Therefore, depth information can be extracted by comparing defocused image with focused image using the depth from defocus (DFD) method. Size of the pixel for 4-tr APS is 2.8 μm × 2.8 μm and the pixel structure was designed and simulated based on 0.11 μm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process. Optical performances of the pixel aperture technique were evaluated using optical simulation with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and electrical performances were evaluated using TCAD.
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Byoung-Soo Choi, Myunghan Bae, Sang-Hwan Kim, Jimin Lee, Chang-Woo Oh, Seunghyuk Chang, JongHo Park, Sang-Jin Lee, and Jang-Kyoo Shin "Extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique", Proc. SPIE 10110, Photonic Instrumentation Engineering IV, 101101S (20 February 2017);

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