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27 January 2017 High contrast grating VCSELs for sensing applications
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High Contrast Gratings (HCGs) become an attractive alternative for Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) used as high reflecting mirrors for VCSELs. In this paper we propose to implement HCG or monolithic HCG as a top mirror of the 1650nm InP-based VCSEL intended for use as a methane sensing device. Its unique feature is related to the fact that light taking part in the resonance can be accessed without opening the laser cavity due to the slow light phenomenon which occurs in HCG. Particular designs of HCGs allow to concentrate significant part of the mode between the HCG stripes. In such constructions the presence of the substance in the vicinity of the HCG which interacts with light resonating in the laser will change its emission properties. This enables sensing absorption or change to the refractive index in proximity of the laser based on the emission parameters of the laser. We present a numerical analysis of 1650nm MHCG and HCG mirrors based on fully vectorial optical model. We found optimal parameters of HCGs and MHCGs to detect absorption and refractive index variations in the vicinity of the gratings, based on changes in power reflectance of analysed mirrors. Additionally we consider HCG and MHCG constructions which allow for broad wavelength tuning by the change of the refractive index of substance surrounding mirror.
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Magdalena Marciniak, Marcin Gębski, Maciej Dems, Krassimir Panajotov, and Tomasz Czyszanowski "High contrast grating VCSELs for sensing applications", Proc. SPIE 10111, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XIV, 101113B (27 January 2017);

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