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17 May 2017 Trimming of ring resonators via ion implantation in silicon
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Ion implantation into silicon causes radiation damage. If a sufficient dose is implanted, complete amorphisation can result in any implanted part of an optical device. Amorphous silicon has a refractive index that is significantly different higher than that of crystalline silicon (~10-1), and can therefore form the basis of a refractive index change in optical devices. This refractive index change can be partially or completely removed by annealing. In recent years we have presented results on the development of erasable gratings in silicon to facilitate wafer scale testing of silicon photonics circuits. These gratings are formed by amorphising selected areas of silicon by utilising ion implantation of Germanium. However, we have now used similar technology for trimming of integrated photonic components. In this paper we discuss design, modelling and fabrication of ring resonators and their subsequent trimming using ion implantation of Germanium into silicon followed by annealing.
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Graham T. Reed, Milan M. Milosevic, Xia Chen, and David J. Thomson "Trimming of ring resonators via ion implantation in silicon", Proc. SPIE 10242, Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations III, 102420Q (17 May 2017);

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