Many research groups both in academia and in industry are currently developing innovative nanoscale devices which could have a tremendous impact in the general areas of photonics and electronics. However techniques for fabricating these devices and nanostructures must be available in the form of production tools in order to find real applications. There are currently two major approaches under study as fabrication methods for nanodevices: these are microfabrication based techniques and molecular assembly techniques. The microfabrication approach, which is to be discussed here, is strongly based on the technology developed over the past decades for the fabrication of electronic devices and integrated circuits. The continued miniaturisation of these devices has far surpassed expectations for a technology developed initially for micrometer sized structures, and this approach now encompasses the fabrication of devices with dimensions well below 100 nm, even in production environments. There are also methods under study which do not yet meet industry standards in terms of, for example, throughput and repeatability, but which have shown significant promise. These include new techniques such as nano-imprint lithography, as well as established research tools such as electron beam lithography, which are becoming more and more relevant as equipment manufacturers such as Canon are now developing new types of production level tools.