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19 February 2018 Room temperature continuous wave mid-infrared VCSEL operating at 3.35 μm
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Tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer a potentially low cost tunable optical source in the 3-5 μm range that will enable commercial spectroscopic sensing of numerous environmentally and industrially important gases including methane, ethane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Thus far, achieving room temperature continuous wave (RTCW) VCSEL operation at wavelengths beyond 3 μm has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we introduce a new device structure that has enabled RTCW VCSEL operation near the methane absorption lines at 3.35 μm. This device structure employs two GaAs/AlGaAs mirrors wafer-bonded to an optically pumped active region comprising compressively strained type-I InGaAsSb quantum wells grown on a GaSb substrate. This substrate is removed in processing, as is one of the GaAs mirror substrates. The VCSEL structure is optically pumped at room temperature with a CW 1550 nm laser through the GaAs substrate, while the emitted 3.3 μm light is captured out of the top of the device. Power and spectrum shape measured as a function of pump power exhibit clear threshold behavior and robust singlemode spectra.
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V. Jayaraman, S. Segal, K. Lascola, C. Burgner, F. Towner, A. Cazabat, G. D. Cole, D. Follman, P. Heu, and C. Deutsch "Room temperature continuous wave mid-infrared VCSEL operating at 3.35 μm", Proc. SPIE 10552, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XXII, 105520B (19 February 2018);

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