Quantum Key Distribution, a fundamental component of quantum secure communication that exploits quantum states and resources for communication protocols, can future-proof the security of digital communications, when if advanced quantum computing systems and mathematical advances render current algorithmic cryptography insecure. A QKD system relies on the integration of quantum physical devices, as quantum sources, quantum channels and quantum detectors, in order to generate a true random (unconditionally secure) cryptographic key between two remote parties connected through a quantum channel. The gap between QKD implemented with ideal and real devices can be exploited to attack real systems, unless appropriate countermeasures are implemented. Characterization of real devices and countermeasure is necessary to guarantee security. Free-space QKD systems can provide secure communication to remote parties of the globe, while QKD systems based on entanglement are intrinsically less vulnerable to attack. Metrology to characterize the optical components of these systems is required. Actually, the “Optical metrology for quantum-enhanced secure telecommunication” Project (MIQC2) is steering the metrological effort for Quantum Cryptography in the European region in order to accelerate the development and commercial uptake of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) technologies. Aim of the project is the development of traceable measurement techniques, apparatus, and protocols that will underpin the characterisation and validation of the performance and quantum-safe security of such systems, essential steps towards standardization and certification of practical implementations of quantum-based technologies.