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23 May 2018 Controlling stimulated and spontaneous four wave mixing in coupled microring resonators (Conference Presentation)
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A common strategy for increasing the efficiency of Stimulated and Spontaneous FourWave Mixing (SFWM) in integrated optical devices, is to enhance the intensity of the propagating optical field through nanoscale geometrical engineering. Typically, this is accomplished by confining light into microresonators or into sequences of mutually coupled cavities. Usually these structures are treated as a whole, with tens or hundreds of repeating units. In these structures, long grange periodicity is deliberately sought to tailor the frequency wavevector band diagram, in order to increase the group index while keeping the group velocity dispersion as low as possible. Having to deal with a large number of unit cells inherently precludes the study of the impact of the internal degree of freedom on FWM. The implementation of complex and extended structures precludes the observation of FWM regimes which are in general hidden, or overhung, by the long range periodicity, and that can emerge only by acting at the single resonator level. In this work, we study SFWM in a system made by two Silicon microring resonators (photonic dimer) of radius 7 um, quality factor Q = 10000 and separation 53.1 um, which are indirectly coupled by means of two waveguides with a coupling gap of 160 nm. We independently change the inter-cavity phase f, and the resonator eigenfrequency detuning d, by respectively implementing a Peltier cell and micro-heaters placed on the top of the resonators. We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that, in the parameter space spanned by (f, d), the efficiency of SFWM can be enhanced, left unchanged or being completely suppressed with the respect to a single uncoupled resonator. This plethora of regimes can not be easily resolved and accomplished in large structures, where the structural periodicity makes slow light to overwhelm any other side effect. Here, a FWM enhancement of 7 dB with respect to each single constituent of the molecule is demonstrated, and attributed to the increase of internal field enhancement of one of the resonator induced by the presence of the other. We theoretically prove that this phenomenon is linked to the excitation of a sub-radiant mode in the structure. FWM suppression arises from the coherent destructive interference between the signal waves generated in the two resonators which are scattered into a common waveguide channel. We find that in the region where SFWM is enhanced, also the efficiency of Spontaneous Four Wave Mixing, the quantum counterpart of the stimulated process, is increased. This opens a plenty of possibilities for the implementation of this device for the generation of correlated photon pairs. We suggest that pairs could be deterministically bunched into a single scattering channel with a brightness that overcomes the one of a critically coupled resonator. This could beat the effective 50% of losses which suffer All-Pass and Add-Drop resonators, and could show superior brightness with respect to asymmetric microrings or dual Mach-Zehnder-microrings devices, whose maximum achievable field enhancement is inherently limited by the level attained at critical coupling.
Conference Presentation
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Massimo Borghi, Alessandro Trenti, Jean Marc Fédéli, and Lorenzo Pavesi "Controlling stimulated and spontaneous four wave mixing in coupled microring resonators (Conference Presentation)", Proc. SPIE 10684, Nonlinear Optics and its Applications 2018, 1068408 (23 May 2018);

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