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12 October 2018 Multiresolution earth remote sensing approach
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Satellite and airborne remote sensing results are shown and indicate the need for continued development of simultaneous use of sensors systems on the same platform, simultaneously collecting imagery at different spectral and spatial resolutions. When multiresolution imagery is collected simultaneously, high quality spatial and spectral image fusion techniques can be applied to the different sensor field of views that helps to improve detection of earth surface features and targets. Multispectral imagery fused with hyperspectral imagery described and results shown in this paper indicates the ability to detect subsurface water features along Florida littoral zones and coastal water regions. The use of multiresolution imaging from the same remote sensing platform provides a valuable approach for detecting sun glint regions and reflectance due to water wave facets and the presence of breaking waves. In littoral regions along Space Coast Florida and the Indian River Lagoon, surface bidirectional reflectance increases 5-6 times the background water surface reflectance, making typical water column constituent estimation questionable. The detection of the influence of surface water gravity waves can be modeled or easily detected using ground sampling distances or spatial resolutions less than or near 0.3 m. Spatial resolutions of approximately one meter or greater do not allow suitable detection of pixels affected by water waves. Satellite imagery based directional reflectance using ground sampling distance greater than 1 meter is contaminated by water wave facet reflection, breaking waves and sun glint effects. Thus bio-geophysical variables such as chlorophyll pigments, suspended matter, dissolved organic matter and light attenuation depths are biased. This bias effect can only be estimated reliably by using small spatial resolution imagery with knowledge gained from analytical and Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling and multiresolution fused imagery. Application of transferable remote sensing algorithms for water quality applications require bidirectional reflectance corrections for water waves, sun glint, and wave facet effects. Example high quality WorldView-3 multispectral and panchromatic clearly shows the water wave facet reflectance effects that is imbedded into larger GSD imagery of water regions and littoral zones and as shown in hyperspectral Monte Carlo model results.
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Charles R. Bostater Jr. "Multiresolution earth remote sensing approach", Proc. SPIE 10784, Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, Coastal Waters, and Large Water Regions 2018, 107840V (12 October 2018);

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