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9 September 2019 X-ray testing of silicon pore optics
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Silicon Pore Optics is the X-ray mirror technology selected for the European Space Agency's Athena X-ray observatory. We describe the X-ray testing and characterization cycle that the optics are subjected to at the PTB's X-ray Pencil/Paraller Beam Facility (XPBF) 1 and 2 beamlines at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II. Individual stacks are measured with a pencil beam to determine their optical quality and the orientation of the optical axis. Using metrics based on X-ray and manufacturing metrology, stacks are then paired in primary-secondary Wolter-I-like systems, that are in turn characterized to determine their optical performance. Finally, four stacks, two primaries and two secondaries, are assembled into a mirror module, that is also characterized, with pencil and wide X-ray beams. At each step models, metrology, and software are combined to arrive at the relevant parameters. We describe the methods used, and illustrate how the performance of imaging pairs can be described in terms of stack-level parameters.
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