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21 February 2020 A lock-in photon-counting based single pixel imaging toward real-time multi-wavelength SFD-DOT
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We have developed a real-time multi-wavelength spatial frequency domain (SFD) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to characterize the optical properties of biological tissues, using single-pixel imaging based on lock-in photon-counting. In our approach, three laser diodes at wavelengths of 450 nm, 520 nm and 635 nm, are intensity-modulated by square waves of three frequencies (temporal-encoding), respectively, and focused into the first digital micromirror device (DMD) to generate a sinusoidal illumination pattern at selected spatial frequencies. The reflected light from the surface of turbid medium are spatially integrated by the second DMD, successively using sampling patterns based on the two- dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT) bases around the spatial modulation frequencies (spatial-compressing). The temporally encoded and spatially compressed multi-wavelength signals that are detected from photomultiplier tube are firstly demodulated by a highly-sensitive lock-in photon-counting module for temporal-decoding, and then uncompressed into the spatial frequency domain images by the inverse DCT, from which tomographic images of the absorption coefficient are finally reconstructed using the first-order Rytov approximation of the diffusion equation. The phantom experiments show that the proposed method can achieve a reconstruction error within 10%, and a temporal resolution of less than 10 s.
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Mai Dan, Tongxin Li, Xi Hou, and Feng Gao "A lock-in photon-counting based single pixel imaging toward real-time multi-wavelength SFD-DOT", Proc. SPIE 11234, Optical Biopsy XVIII: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis, 112341L (21 February 2020);

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