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16 February 2020 Nonpolar GaN-based VCSELs with lattice-matched nanoporous distributed Bragg reflector mirrors
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GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have drawn interest in recent years for their potential applications in data storage, laser printing, solid-state lighting, optical communications, sensing, and displays. Several research groups have demonstrated electrically injected GaN-based VCSELs utilizing different growth and fabrication techniques to address the many challenges associated with III-nitride materials. One such challenge is fabrication of highquality conductive epitaxial distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). A relatively new approach that yields high-index-contrast lattice-matched epitaxial DBRs is to introduce subwavelength air-voids (nanopores) in alternating layers of doped/undoped GaN. These nanoporous layers can be achieved by the controlled anodic electrochemical etching of highly doped n-type GaN in acids. The selective formation of the nanopores in the doped layers effectively lowers the refractive index compared to the adjacent undoped GaN layers, resulting in a refractive index difference of ~0.83, allowing high reflectance (>99%) with only ~16 pairs. Here, we will present electrically injected nonpolar m-plane GaN-based VCSELs with lattice-matched nanoporous GaN bottom DBRs and top dielectric DBRs. Lasing under pulsed operation at room temperature was observed at 409 nm with a linewidth of ~0.6 nm and a maximum output power of ~1.5 mW. The nonpolar m-plane orientation offers low transparency, high material gain, and anisotropic gain characteristics. The VCSELs were linearly polarized with a polarization ratio of ~0.94 and polarization-pinned emission along the a-direction. The mode profiles, thermal properties, and lasing yield of the VCSELs are also discussed.
Conference Presentation
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Saadat M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, Andrew A. Aragon, Morteza Monavarian, Ting S. Luk, and Daniel F. Feezell "Nonpolar GaN-based VCSELs with lattice-matched nanoporous distributed Bragg reflector mirrors", Proc. SPIE 11280, Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XV, 112800I (16 February 2020);

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