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16 March 2020 U-radiomics for predicting survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
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We developed and evaluated the effect of U-Net-based radiomic features, called U-radiomics, on the prediction of the overall survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). To generate the U-radiomics, we retrospectively collected lung CT images of 72 patients with interstitial lung diseases. An experienced observer delineated regions of interest (ROIs) from the lung regions on the CT images, and labeled them into one of four interstitial lung disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, reticulation, consolidation, and honeycombing) or a normal pattern. A U-Net was trained on these images for classifying the ROIs into one of the above five lung tissue patterns. The trained U-Net was applied to the lung CT images of an independent test set of 75 patients with IPF, and a U-radiomics vector for each patient was identified as the average of the bottleneck layer of the U-Net across all the CT images of the patient. The U-radiomics vector was subjected to a Cox proportional hazards model with elastic-net penalty for predicting the survival of the patient. The evaluation was performed by using bootstrapping with 500 replications, where concordance index (C-index) was used as the comparative performance metric. The preliminary results showed the following C-index values for two clinical biomarkers and the U-radiomics: (a) composite physiologic index (CPI): 64.6%, (b) gender, age, and physiology (GAP) index: 65.5%, and (c) U-radiomics: 86.0%. The U-radiomics significantly outperformed the clinical biomarkers in predicting the survival of IPF patients, indicating that the U-radiomics provides a highly accurate prognostic biomarker for patients with IPF.
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Tomoki Uemura, Chinatsu Watari, Janne J. Näppi, Toru Hironaka, Hyoungseop Kim, and Hiroyuki Yoshida "U-radiomics for predicting survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis", Proc. SPIE 11314, Medical Imaging 2020: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 113140T (16 March 2020);

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