High performance detector technology is being developed for sensing over the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) band for NASA Earth Science, defense, and commercial applications. The graphene-based HgCdTe detector technology involves the integration of graphene with HgCdTe photodetectors that combines the best of both materials, and allows for higher MWIR (2-5 μm) detection performance compared with photodetectors using only HgCdTe material. The interfacial barriers between the HgCdTe-based absorber and the graphene act as a tunable rectifier that reduces the recombination of photogenerated carriers in the detector. The graphene layer also acts as high mobility channel that whisks away carriers before they recombine, further enhancing detection performance. This makes them much more practical and useful for MWIR sensing applications such as remote sensing and earth observation, e.g., in smaller satellite platforms (CubeSat) for measurement of thermal dynamics with better spatial resolution. The objective of this work is to demonstrate graphene-based HgCdTe room temperature MWIR detectors and arrays through modeling, material development, and device optimization. The primary driver for this technology development is the enablement of a scalable, low cost, low power, and small footprint infrared technology component that offers high performance, while opening doors for new earth observation measurement capabilities.