The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the key instrument of the NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua missions, launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) expands the MODIS legacy, launched onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011 and NOAA20 satellite in November 2017, respectively. The MODIS and VIIRS sensors have a similar design with spectrally matched reflective solar spectral bands (RSB). Their on-board calibration components include a solar diffuser and a solar diffuser stability monitor for RSB, a V-grooved blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a space view as a background reference. This study evaluates the calibration consistency of the Terra and Aqua MODIS RSB based on the current Collection 6.1 L1B data products generated by the NASA MODAPS, which have used consistent calibration coefficient look up tables (LUT) for the entire data-record. In the case of SNPP and NOAA20 VIIRS, the latest L1B data produced by NASA Land SIPS are used. Several independent vicarious approaches are used to examine the stability and consistency of the at-sensor reflectance among MODIS and VIIRS instruments. Vicarious approaches include observations from simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO), the Libya-4 desert and Dome C snow sites, as well as deep convective clouds (DCC). Impact of existing band spectral difference on the reflectance is corrected using hyperspectral observations provided by Europe Space Agency’s SCIAMACHY sensor. Results of this study provide comprehensive assessments of calibration performance, radiometric agreement and associated uncertainties.