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20 September 2020 MODIS reflective solar bands lunar calibration update and improvements
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Abstract
The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on-board the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002, respectively. Each instrument has been scheduled to view the Moon through its Space View (SV) port approximately once per month in order to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of their reflective solar bands (RSB). The lunar calibration has played a key role in tracking the change in the response versus scan angle (RVS) of the instrument’s scan mirror, which is an essential part of the RSB calibration. The lunar irradiance observed by MODIS depends on the view geometry and it is crucial to remove the geometric effects in order to derive accurate RSB calibration coefficients. With a scheduled roll maneuver, the lunar phase angles are kept in a narrow range of 1° for each MODIS instrument such that the impact of these geometric effects is minimized. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to completely remove the impact of geometric effects in the calibration coefficients derived from the lunar observations, considering the high expectations for the accuracy and quality of the results. In the current MODIS lunar calibration, the geometric effects on the lunar irradiance are corrected by the RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) model. The overall relative uncertainty of the ROLO model for the MODIS calibration has been assessed to be about 1% in the selected lunar phase angle range of 1°. It could be as large as 4% beyond this small phase angle range, especially for the shortest wavelengths. This uncertainty induces noticeable oscillations in the calibration coefficients derived from the lunar observations. We developed a simple lunar model, which is based on MODIS lunar measurements, derived from scheduled lunar observations, as well as those obtained from intrusion of the Moon in the SV, referred to as unscheduled lunar observations, in the time period from 2005 to 2012. Here, the scheduled lunar observations for the entire mission are reprocessed with the new lunar model applied to correct the view geometry effects for each MODIS instrument. New calibration coefficients for the RSBs are calculated. We show that oscillations and noise in the derived lunar calibration coefficients are significantly reduced for both MODIS instruments.
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Junqiang Sun, Xiaoxiong Xiong, Amit Angal, and Truman Wilson "MODIS reflective solar bands lunar calibration update and improvements", Proc. SPIE 11530, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XXIV, 115301C (20 September 2020); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2572956
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