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20 September 2020 Planar geometry Ge‐on‐Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors for the short-wave infrared
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The addition of germanium to Si-based single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors can significantly increase the spectral range of these devices into the into the strategically important short-wave infrared (SWIR) region. We present the performance characteristics of small area (26 μm and 50 µm diameter) planar geometry Ge-on-Si SPAD detectors. There are many advantages for operating such SPAD detection in the SWIR region, these include: reduced eye-safety laser threshold, longer measurable ranges, improved depth resolution in range finding applications; and improved capability for imaging through obscurants such as precipitation and smoke. The time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) technique has been utilized for the measurement of record low dark count rates (DCRs) and high single-photon detection efficiency. Specifically, the 26 µm diameter devices maintained DCR values < 100 kHz up to a temperature of 125 K for excess biases up to 6.6 %. The 50 µm diameter device consistently demonstrated DCRs a factor of approximately 4 times greater than 26 µm diameter devices, under identical operating conditions of excess bias and temperature, illustrating a dark count rate in proportion to the device volume. Single-photon detection efficiencies were found to reach a maximum of ~ 29 %, measured at a wavelength of 1310 nm and a temperature of 125 K. Due the record low dark currents observed, noise equivalent power values (NEP) down to 7.7 × 10-17 WHz-1/2 are obtained, significantly reduced when compared to both previous mesa geometry and larger area planar geometry Ge-on-Si SPADs, indicating much improved optical sensitivity levels attainable with these planar geometry devices. In addition to this, high speed operation was demonstrated, quantified by jitter values down to 134 ± 10 ps at a temperature of 100 K. These results demonstrate the potential of these devices for highly sensitive and high-speed LIDAR imaging in the SWIR.
Conference Presentation
© (2020) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Fiona E. Thorburn, Laura L. Huddleston, Xin Yi, Gerald S. Buller, Jarosław Kirdoda, Ross W. Millar, Lourdes Ferre Llin, and Douglas J. Paul "Planar geometry Ge‐on‐Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors for the short-wave infrared", Proc. SPIE 11540, Emerging Imaging and Sensing Technologies for Security and Defence V; and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Micro- and Nanosystems in Security and Defence III, 115400O (20 September 2020);


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