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27 November 1989 Spectroscopic Investigations With A Reflection Grating Spectrometer
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Abstract
The Reflection Grating Spectrometer experiment (RGS) on the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission spacecraft (XMM) of the European Space Agency (ESA) consists of two identical instruments behind two of the three high throughput X-ray telescopes. The instruments will achieve high energy resolution and high efficiency in the combined first and second order of diffraction in the wavelength range between 5 and 35 Å. The design incorporates an array of reflection gratings placed n the converging beam at the exit from the X-ray telescope. The grating stack picks off roughly half of the X-ray light and diffracts it to the array of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors offset from the telescope focal plane. The remaining light passes undeflected through the grating stack where it can be utilised by instruments located in the focal plane. Both the gratings and the detector are placed on the Rowland circle. The reflection gratings diffract first, second and third order at high to moderate efficiency. The separation of the spectral orders is accomplished using the energy resolution of the CCD detectors. A set of ten CCD-chips (nine for spectroscopy, one for wavelength calibration) are arranged in a strip oriented tangentially to the Rowland circle. Since the optical design is nearly stigmatic, the spectrum of an on-axis point source will appear as a line image along the detector array. In order to reduce noise and dark current an operational temperature of -80°C is adopted for the CCD's. The cooling is provided through a passive radiator. The chips are read out sequentially with a common electronics chain. Each chip is configured in an "image and store" mode in which the image is first acquired over half the chip and transferred to the other half for storage prior to read out.
© (1989) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
A. C. Brinkman, H. J.M. Aarts, G. Branduardi-Raymont, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Jansen, S. M. Kahn, P. A .J. de Korte, and A. Zehnder "Spectroscopic Investigations With A Reflection Grating Spectrometer", Proc. SPIE 1159, EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy and Atomic Physics, (27 November 1989); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.962606
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