The discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has opened new opportunities for applications of superconductors in optoelectronics. The HTS perovskites represent a new class of solid-state materials, exhibiting many very interesting and potentially useful electronic, optical, and electro-optical properties. They also operate in the 30-80 K temperature range, where refrigeration is cheap and the parameters of semiconducting devices are optimal. A review of the substrate materials and deposition techniques suitable for fabrication of high- quality epitaxial HTS films for electronic and optoelectronic applications are given. Laser processing techniques of HTS films are presented, with a special emphasis put on the laser writing method. These techniques make it possible to define superconducting and nonsuperconducting regions in the same, epitaxial HTS film. Two possible approaches are presented for the development of a complete optoelectronic system with the elements based on the HTS films and operational at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The first approach consists of manufacturing the devices made of conventional electro-optic materials and containing HTS transmission lines and electrodes. Design and properties of ultrafast HTS interconnects are discussed, and a new concept of the Mach-Zehnder-type YBa2Cu3O7-y- on-LiNbO3 optical modulator is introduced. The second, more futuristic approach, is to exploit contrasting properties of the oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich HTs phases to fabricate novel, monolithic devices. We discuss recent experiments, which reveal intriguing optical properties of HTS films, and are most relevant for the development of all-HTS optoelectronic devices. Several practical devices, such as high-frequency modulators, ultrafast-pulse generators, and sensitive photodetectors are presented.