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21 September 1992 IR sea surface clutter model based on rough surface scattering theory
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An analytic model of the clutter or variation of the IR surface radiance of ocean surfaces has been developed based on the Beckmann Spizzichino theory of scattering from rough surfaces. The model is cast in terms of an average bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and contains the surface descriptions in terms of the average surface variance, sea surface correlation length, and Fresnel reflection coefficients. The average BRDF is then used to obtain an expression for the directional emissivity. Finally, the average sea surface directional radiance, as well as its variance, are obtained considering solar and sky reflections, as well as the surface thermal emission contribution.
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Martin Ronald Wohlers "IR sea surface clutter model based on rough surface scattering theory", Proc. SPIE 1687, Characterization, Propagation, and Simulation of Sources and Backgrounds II, (21 September 1992);

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