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25 February 1993 Dielectric optical waveguide sensors integrated with GaAs active devices
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Dielectric optical waveguides exhibit properties that are well suited to sensor applications. They have low refractive index and are transparent to a wide range of wavelengths. They can react with the surrounding environment in a variety of controllable ways. In certain sensor applications, it is advantageous to integrate the dielectric waveguide on a semiconductor substrate with active devices. In this work, we demonstrate a tamper sensor based on dielectric waveguides that connect epitaxial GaAs-GaAlAs sources and detectors. The tamper sensing function is realized by attaching particles of absorbing material with high refractive index to the surface of the waveguides. These absorbers are then attached to a lid or cover, as in an integrated circuit package or multi-chip module. The absorbers attenuate the light in the waveguides as a function of absorber interaction. The absorbers are placed randomly on the waveguides, to form a unique attenuation pattern that is registered by the relative signal levels on the photodetectors. When the lid is moved, the pattern of absorbers changes, altering the photodetector signals. This dielectric waveguide arrangement is applicable to a variety of sensor functions, and can make use of resonant coupling properties between low refractive index dielectric waveguides and high-index absorbing materials.
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Richard Franklin Carson, Stephen A. Casalnuovo, and Michael B. Sinclair "Dielectric optical waveguide sensors integrated with GaAs active devices", Proc. SPIE 1791, Optical Materials Reliability and Testing: Benign and Adverse Environments, (25 February 1993);

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