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17 May 1994 Systematic design of phase-shifting masks
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In this paper, we present a systematic method for phase-shifting mask design in coherent optical lithography using approaches based on approximation theory, phase-retrieval, and image extrapolation. This method also provides some insight into the design of enhanced- resolution masks for incoherent and partially coherent systems and suggests a possible strategy for pupil filter design. The optical lithography system is divided into three subsystems: (1) a softlimiter, (2) a squarer, and (3) a bandlimiter. Thus, the phase-shifting mask design is approached via three corresponding subproblems: (1) bandlimited approximation, (2) phase- retrieval, and (3) extrapolation. Using this method, we demonstrate the possibility of composing a large and complicated phase-shifting mask by abutting smaller and simpler masks. Simulation results of phase-shifting design examples are provided to illustrate the method and ideas described here.
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Yao-Ting Wang, Yagyensh C. Pati, Jen-Wei Liang, and Thomas Kailath "Systematic design of phase-shifting masks", Proc. SPIE 2197, Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, (17 May 1994);

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