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24 May 1995 Anatomic vascular phantom for the verification of MRA and XRA visualization and fusion
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A project is underway to develop automated methods of fusing cerebral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and x-ray angiography (XRA) for creating accurate visualizations used in planning treatment of vascular disease. We have developed a vascular phantom suitable for testing segmentation and fusion algorithms with either derived images (psuedo-MRA/psuedo-XRA) or actual MRA or XRA image sequences. The initial unilateral arterial phantom design, based on normal human anatomy, contains 48 tapering vascular segments with lumen diameters from 2.5 millimeter to 0.25 millimeter. The initial phantom used rapid prototyping technology (stereolithography) with a 0.9 millimeter vessel wall fabricated in an ultraviolet-cured plastic. The model fabrication resulted in a hollow vessel model comprising the internal carotid artery, the ophthalmic artery, and the proximal segments of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries. The complete model was fabricated but the model's lumen could not be cleared for vessels with less than 1 millimeter diameter. Measurements of selected vascular outer diameters as judged against the CAD specification showed an accuracy of 0.14 mm and precision (standard deviation) of 0.15 mm. The plastic vascular model produced provides a fixed geometric framework for the evaluation of imaging protocols and the development of algorithms for both segmentation and fusion.
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Nicholas J. Mankovich, Timothy Lambert, Tatjana Zrimec, and John B. Hiller "Anatomic vascular phantom for the verification of MRA and XRA visualization and fusion", Proc. SPIE 2433, Medical Imaging 1995: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, (24 May 1995);

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