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23 August 1995 Real-time landmark-based optical vehicle self-location
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This paper presents a system for performing real-time vehicular self-location through a combination of triangulation of target sightings and low-cost auxiliary sensor information (e.g. accelerometer, compass, etc.). The system primarily relies on the use of three video cameras to monitor a dynamic 180 degree field of view. Machine vision algorithms process the imagery from this field of view searching for targets placed at known locations. Triangulation results are then combined with the past video processing results and auxiliary sensor information to arrive at real-time vehicle location update rates in excess of 10 Hz on a single low-cost conventional CPU. To supply both extended operating range and nighttime operational capabilities, the system also possesses an active illumination mode that utilizes multiple, inexpensive, infrared LEDs to act as the illuminating source and retroreflectors as the system targets. This paper will present the design methodology used to arrive at the system, discuss the overall system concept and process flow, and will briefly discuss actual results of implementaing the system on a standard commercial vehicle.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Michael P. Whalen, Russell C. Watts, Charles J. Jacobus, Gary Moody, Mark J. Taylor, and Merrill D. Squires "Real-time landmark-based optical vehicle self-location", Proc. SPIE 2566, Advanced Imaging Technologies and Commercial Applications, (23 August 1995);

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