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19 July 1996 Development of capillary optics for microbeam applications with synchrotron radition
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Capillary optics have been suggested some time ago to confine x-ray beams to the size of a few microns. First experiments using glass capillaries of various sizes and shapes have been reported recently. We discuss the design and fabrication of capillary optics at CHESS, the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, for applications such as Laue diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and small angle scattering. Early results in the production of the glass optics led to the construction of a glass pulling device to ensure a controlled fabrication process. Large efforts have been made to carefully evaluate the quality of these x-ray optics. MEtrology tests show good agreement between the design figure (e.g. linear or parabolic taper) and the actual profile, and indicate a high reproducibility in the production. X-ray tests have been carried out at CHESS employing white synchrotron radiation and monochromatic beams at different energies. Using a variety of glass materials it was discovered that surface roughness is often limiting the performance of these glass optics. Details on a microscopy analysis of the reflecting inner surface from capillaries are presented. In a survey of several glasses, soda-lime material was found to have the smoothest surface structure.
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Reinhard Pahl and Donald H. Bilderback "Development of capillary optics for microbeam applications with synchrotron radition", Proc. SPIE 2805, Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, (19 July 1996);

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