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21 October 1996 Temperature and emissivity separation from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images
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The ASTER scanner on NASA's EOS-AM1 satellite (launch: 1998) will collect five channels of TIR data with an NE(Delta) T of less than or equal to 0.3 degrees Kelvin to estimate surface kinetic temperatures and emissivity spectra, especially over land, where emissivities are not known in advance. Temperature/emissivity separation (TES) is difficult because there are five measurements but six unknowns. Various approaches have been used to constrain the extra degree of freedom. ASTER's TES algorithm hybridizes three established algorithms, first estimating the temperature by the normalized emissivity method, and then using it to calculate emissivity band ratios. An empirical relationship predicts the minimum emissivity from the spectral contrast (min-max difference: MMD) of the ratioed values, permitting recovery of the emissivity spectrum. TES uses an iterative approach to remove reflected sky irradiance. Based on numerical simulation, TES can recover temperatures within about plus or minus 1.5 degrees Kelvin, and emissivities within about plus or minus 0.015. Limitations arise from the empirical relationship between emissivity values and spectral contrast, compensation for reflected sky irradiance, and ASTER's precision, calibration and atmospheric correction. Improvements of TES before launch will focus on refining the MMD relationship.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Alan R. Gillespie, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Shuichi Rokugawa, and Simon J. Hook "Temperature and emissivity separation from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images", Proc. SPIE 2817, Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, (21 October 1996);

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