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20 November 1996 Microstructure, particle size, and x-ray analysis of PMN electroceramics
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Multilayer actuators are being used in optical communications, large-scale telescopes, semiconductor processing, medical imaging, and a host of optical instruments which need submicron control. PMN multilayer actuators have hysteresis which is less than 1 percent, linearity which is better than 99 percent, and precision which is accurate to a few nanometers. Fundamental to the electrostrain and strength of the multilayer actuators is the ceramic microstructure. The particle size of the starting powders and the thermal processes used to densify the ceramic are key elements in producing a microstructure which provides reliable response at ever increasing applied electric fields.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mark A. Ealey and George S. Surprenant "Microstructure, particle size, and x-ray analysis of PMN electroceramics", Proc. SPIE 2865, Actuator Technology and Applications, (20 November 1996);

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