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20 November 1996 New developments in PMN-based multilayer actuators
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Over the past decade, the principle focus in the lead magnesium niobate (PMN) family of relaxor ferroelectric ceramics has been on the electrostrictive formulation due mainly to its application in deformable optics. Electrostrictive response of the PMN material is very low in hysteresis, contains near-zero creep, and features subnanometer precision. Temperature dependence is its major drawback. Highly desirable is a material which has the broad temperature response of piezoelectric lead-zirconate- titanate with the stable, accurate response of electrostrictive PMN. In this paper we report the development of novel piezoelectric and composite formulations of PMN which provide temperature stabilized response with moderate hysteresis and enhanced structural response with high authority.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mark A. Ealey, Charles F. Pohlhammer, and John A. Wellman "New developments in PMN-based multilayer actuators", Proc. SPIE 2865, Actuator Technology and Applications, (20 November 1996);

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