This paper reports the development of a sapphire ((alpha) - Al2O3) single crystal optical fiber thermometer using two wavelength bands. A thin film of precious metal or ceramic deposited onto one end of the sapphire fiber forms a mini-radiation cavity. The other end of the sapphire fiber is coupled to a low-loss silica fiber. Radiation from the small cavity is transmitted along the silica fiber into a photodetection system which consists of a lens, beam splitter, two interference filters (820 nm and 940 nm center wavelength, 30 nm bandwidth) and two silicon photocells. The temperature measurement is based on the detection of radiation from the small cavity. The sapphire fiber (0.25 - 1.0 mm diameter, 100 - 450 mm length) was grown by the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) methods. Transmission loss in the sapphire fiber was experimentally measured. Theoretical analysis shows the apparent emittance of the small cavity with a length to diameter (L/D) ratio greater than eight is a constant value near to one, so the small cavity can be considered as a small black-body cavity. Using the developed sapphire fiber temperature sensor, we have built a sapphire fiber thermometer based on a 8098 single-chip microcomputer system. It was calibrated at some known stable temperature point and uses the fundamental radiation law to extrapolate to other temperatures. By taking the ratio of the optical power at two wavelengths, errors due to changes in the system, such as emissivity and transmission losses, can be canceled out. The thermometer has an operating temperature range of 800 to 1900 degrees Celsius, and an accuracy of 0.2% at 1000 degrees Celsius. There are a number of applications of the thermometer both in science and industry.