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23 January 1997 Photofabrication of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films
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Surface relief gratings were photofabricated on various polymer films containing azobenzene groups in the side chain or in the main chain. Formation of the surface relief gratings on the polymer was very sensitive to the polymer structures. The surface gratings were produced on the polymers containing photoisomerizable azobenzene groups. Recording of the gratings was strongly dependent on the polarization of the beams. The localized variations of magnitude and polarization of the resultant electric field in the film are essential to the formation of the surface relief gratings. Large surface modulation (greater than 6000 angstrom) and high diffraction efficiency (greater than 40% into each of plus or minus 1 order) were obtained under optimal recording conditions. The diffraction efficiency of the surface relief grating was dependent only on the total light energy incident on the film. The surface pattern resulting from straight edge diffraction mapped the negative first derivative of the intensity distribution. Fabrication of various multiple gratings on the same spot of the polymer films were demonstrated. Fourier blazed gratings were also fabricated. The resulting surface pattern was a simple superposition of all the interfering recording waves.
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Dong Yu Kim, Taek-Seung Lee, Xianyan Wang, Xinli Jiang, Lian Li, Jayant Kumar, and Sukant K. Tripathy "Photofabrication of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films", Proc. SPIE 2998, Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, (23 January 1997);

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