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13 June 1997 Residual stresses in polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics
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The development of ferroelectric ceramics is driven by the needs for functional materials used in a very broad range. The most striking features of ferroelectric ceramics are strong electromechanical coupling effect and the prompt response to applied electric fields. These properties have render ferroelectric ceramics desirable for designing smart actuators for active control applications (Newnham and Ruschau 1996) . The major obstacle in actuator applications of ferroelectric ceramics is the so-called electric fatigue, referring to deterioration, under cyclic electric loading, of macroscopic properties, such as the actuation force or the actuation strain. Experimental observation indicates that fatigued ferroelectric specimens often contain scattered microcracks, i.e., cracks of size comparable to the average grain size which is in the range of 2 '-S-'8for commercial PZT ceramics, the most commonly-used ferroelectric materials in actuator applications. The main thrust of this work is to understand the correlation between cracking at the grain level and deterioration of macroscopic properties.
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Qing Jiang and Yongqian Wang "Residual stresses in polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics", Proc. SPIE 3039, Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Mathematics and Control in Smart Structures, (13 June 1997);

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