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20 April 1998 VCSELs in '98: what we have and what we can expect
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Abstract
Recent results from the authors group are summarized as a general indicator of the current state of the art in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). These include results from engineered-aperture VCSELs with high wall-plug efficiencies at low powers, high-efficiency bottom-emitting cryo-VCSELs with wavelengths < 900 nm, low-threshold AlGaInAs VCSELs emitting at 850 nm, and arrays of VCSELs used in parallel free-space links as well as WDM arrays butt-coupled to multimode fiber. Analysis indicates that size-dependent losses limit the scaling of VCSELs below 5 micrometers in diameter unless special engineered apertures and/or short cavities are used. The analysis also shows that lateral carrier confinement is necessary to obtain efficient devices below 2 micrometers in diameter.
© (1998) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Larry A. Coldren, Eric R. Hegblom, Yuliya A. Akulova, Jack Ko, Eva M. Strzelecka, and Syn-Yem Hu "VCSELs in '98: what we have and what we can expect", Proc. SPIE 3286, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers II, (20 April 1998); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.305446
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