Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is a major determinant of intracranial pressure (ICP). Hyperventilation is commonly employed to reduce raised ICP (e.g. in brain tumour patients) presumably through its effect on CBV. With the advent of slip- ring CT scanners, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging allows for the measurement of CBV with high spatial resolution. Using a two-compartment model to characterize the distribution of X- ray contrast agent in the brain, we have developed a non- equilibrium CT method to measure CBV in normal and pathological regions. We used our method to investigate the effect of hyperventilation on CBV during propofol anaesthesia in rabbits with implanted brain tumours. Eight New Zealand White rabbits with implanted VX2 carcinoma brain tumours were studied. For each rabbit, regional CBV measurements were initially made at normocapnia (PaCO2 40 mmHg) and then at hyperventilation (PaCO2 25 mmHg) during propofol anaesthesia. The head was positioned such that a coronal image through the brain incorporated a significant cross-section of the brain tumour as well as a radial artery in a forelimb. Images at the rate of 1 per second were acquired for 2 minutes as Omnipaque 300 (1.5 ml/kg rabbit weight) was injected via a peripheral vein. In these CT images, regions of interest in the brain tissue (e.g. tumour, contra-lateral normal, and peri-tumoural) and the radial artery were drawn. For each region, the mean CT number in pre-contrast images was subtracted from the mean CT number in post-contrast images to produce either the tissue contrast concentration curve, or the arterial contrast concentration curve. Using our non- equilibrium analysis method based on a two-compartment model, regional CBV values were determined from the measured contrast concentration curves. From our study, the mean CBV values [+/- SD] in the tumour, peri-tumoural, and contra-lateral normal regions during normocapnia were: 5.47 plus or minus 1.97, 3.28 plus or minus 1.01, and 1.86 plus or minus 0.54 ml/100 g, respectively. Following hyperventilation, we found a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) of 10.4% in CBV in the peri-tumoural region, and no statistically significant change in CBV in the tumour or contra-lateral normal regions. We have developed a convenient method for measuring CBV in normal and pathological tissue using a slip-ring CT scanner. In a brain tumour model, we found that CBV was markedly increased in tumour and peri-tumoural regions compared to normal regions. Our results suggest that the reduction of raised ICP following hyperventilation during propofol anaesthesia may be mainly due to a reduction in CBV in the peri-tumoural tissue rather than in the bulk of the tumour or normal regions. Our method has the potential to provide further knowledge on the cerebral hemodynamics of space- occupying lesions during different anaesthetic interventions or treatment regiments.