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17 July 1998 Comparison of several maneuvering target tracking models
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The tracking of maneuvering targets is complicated by the fact that acceleration is not directly observable or measurable. Additionally, acceleration can be induced by a variety of sources including human input, autonomous guidance, or atmospheric disturbances. The approaches to tracking maneuvering targets can be divided into two categories both of which assume that the maneuver input command is unknown. One approach is to model the maneuver as a random process. The other approach assumes that the maneuver is not random and that it is either detected or estimated in real time. The random process models generally assume one of two statistical properties, either white noise or an autocorrelated noise. The multiple-model approach is generally used with the white noise model while a zero-mean, exponentially correlated acceleration approach is used with the autocorrelated noise model. The nonrandom approach uses maneuver detection to correct the state estimate or a variable dimension filter to augment the state estimate with an extra state component during a detected maneuver. Another issue with the tracking of maneuvering target is whether to perform the Kalman filter in Polar or Cartesian coordinates. This paper will examine and compare several exponentially correlated acceleration approaches in both Polar and Cartesian coordinates for accuracy and computational complexity. They include the Singer model in both Polar and Cartesian coordinates, the Singer model in Polar coordinates converted to Cartesian coordinates, Helferty's third order rational approximation of the Singer model and the Bar-Shalom and Fortmann model. This paper shows that these models all provide very accurate position estimates with only minor differences in velocity estimates and compares the computational complexity of the models.
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Gregory A. McIntyre and Kenneth J. Hintz "Comparison of several maneuvering target tracking models", Proc. SPIE 3374, Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition VII, (17 July 1998);

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