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22 July 1998 Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors
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Abstract
Diffractive optical elements (microlenses) for quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) were fabricated by two techniques: (1) standard lithography of a binary optical structure and (2) PMMA pattern transfer for an analog diffractive optic structure. The binary lenses were fabricated by sequential contact lithography and etching using two binary masks. The analog diffractive lenses were fabricated in PMMA by direct-write e-beam lithography followed by acetone development. The resulting PMMA surface relief profile was transferred into the GaAs by dry etching. Both types of lenses were etching into GaAs using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma etching system. Although the lenses were fabricated accurately, the performance of the QWIPs was not improved as much as expected due to the angle-of-incidence sensitivity of the QWIP light-coupling grating. The lenses would have likely improved the performance of detectors capable of absorbing normally incident light.
© (1998) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Frederick S. Pool, Daniel W. Wilson, Paul D. Maker, Richard E. Muller, John J. Gill, Deepak K. Sengupta, John K. Liu, Sumith V. Bandara, and Sarath D. Gunapala "Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors", Proc. SPIE 3379, Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, (22 July 1998); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.317608
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