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6 July 1998 Properties of ormosil slab waveguides based on sol-gel precursors tetramethoxysilane and trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate
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Good optical quality, thin films have been prepared from ormosils based on equimolar tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate (TMSPM) by a single dip coating onto silica substrates then gelling and drying the film below 100 degrees Celsius. Zirconium tetra-n-propoxide (Zr), complexed with methylacrylic acid (MA), was added to the base ormosil TMOS.TMSPM to raise the film refractive index above that of the silica substrate to effect waveguiding. Refractive index dispersion in the visible was measured for bulk specimens of the base composition using the Abbe refractometer. Refractive index and film thickness of the ormosil slab waveguides were determined using the method of prism coupling of a HeNe beam (wavelength 632.8 nm) by measurement of the angular displacement of the emerging modes. Film thickness was also measured using a Dektak 3030T profilometer and confirmed to be about 3 micrometer. Increasing the atomic fraction [Zr/(Si + Zr)] from zero to 0.296 led to a rise in waveguide core refractive index from 1.4768 (assumed the same as bulk specimen) to 1.52218. Higher additions of Zr led to cracking of the films.
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Angela B. Seddon and Adil Adamjee "Properties of ormosil slab waveguides based on sol-gel precursors tetramethoxysilane and trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate", Proc. SPIE 3469, Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials for Photonics, (6 July 1998);


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