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29 October 1998 New chromophores and polymers for second-order nonlinear optics
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Linear conjugated, fluorine-containing chromophores are differing from conventional chromophores like disperse red one by a reduced linear refractive index. Second order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of asymmetrically substituted fluorine-containing dyes reach, however, values as high as those of DR I or of similar chromophores. This can be concluded from measurements of solvatochromy of absorption and fluorescence spectra, electroabsorption measurements, and from quantum chemical calculations carried out for a series of azomethine and azo dyes. The chemical constitution of the conjugated part of investigate chromophores has an important influence both on linear and non nonlinear optical properties. So azomethine dyes show a blue shifted absorption in comparison to the absorption of azo chromophores. This goes along with lower off-resonant second order susceptibility. Introduction of fluorine into the acceptor part of the molecule by attaching a CF3- group does not lead to a significantly lower second order susceptibly in comparison to non-fluorinated chromophores. Perfluorination of the acceptor part result in case of the investigated molecules in an increased second order susceptibility as compared to the non-fluorinated chromophore. Polymers which contain these chromophores are either prepared by physical doping or by covalent bonding of the dyes to the polymeric main chain.In case of physically doped polymers the classes of thermally stable allylic polymers and of polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) were used as matrix material. These polymers show miscibility with the investigated chromophores up to high concentrations and are haracterized by glass transition temperatures between 140 degrees C and 180 degrees C or 180 degrees C and 350 degrees C (PPQs) dependent on chemical structure and on dye concentration. Polymers which contain the active chromophores in side chains were prepared on basis of maleic acid anhydride or as novolak epoxy amine aduct polymer. The former can be utilized for preparation of waveguides by means of Langmuir-Blodgett technique while the later provide films of excellent quality by spin-coating and subsequent corona poling. Second order susceptibilities of the polymer films as determined by second harmonic generation reach values between 5 and 27 pm/V dependent on chromophore concentration and preparation conditions.
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Sigurd K. Schrader, Dietrich Prescher, and Vismants Zauls "New chromophores and polymers for second-order nonlinear optics", Proc. SPIE 3474, Second-Order Organic Nonlinear Optics, (29 October 1998);

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