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31 August 1998 Transport limitations in electrodeposition for LIGA microdevice fabrication
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Proceedings Volume 3511, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology IV; (1998)
Event: Micromachining and Microfabrication, 1998, Santa Clara, CA, United States
To better understand and to help optimize the electroforming portion of the LIGA process, we have developed one and two- dimensional numerical models describing electrodeposition of metal into high aspect-ratio molds. The one-dimensional model addresses dissociation, diffusion, electromigration, and deposition of multiple ion species. The two-dimensional model is limited to a single species, but includes transport induced by forced flow of electrolyte outside the mold and by buoyancy associated with metal ion depletion within the mold. To guide model development and to validate these models, we have also conducted a series of laboratory experiments using a sulfamate bath to deposit nickel in cylindrical molds having aspect ratios up to twenty-five. The experimental results indicate that current densities well in excess of diffusion-limited currents may still yield acceptable morphologies in the deposited metal. However, the numerical models demonstrate that such large ion fluxes cannot be sustained by convection within the mold resulting from flow across the mold top. Instead, calculations suggest that the observed hundred-fold enhancement of transport probably results from natural convection within the molds and that buoyancy-driven flows may be critical to metal ion transport even in micron-scale features having very large aspect ratios. Taking advantage of this enhanced ion transport may allow order-of-magnitude reductions in electroforming times for LIGA microdevice fabrication.
© (1998) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Stewart K. Griffiths, Robert H. Nilson, R. W. Bradshaw, Aili Ting, William D. Bonivert, John T. Hachman, and Jill M. Hruby "Transport limitations in electrodeposition for LIGA microdevice fabrication", Proc. SPIE 3511, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology IV, (31 August 1998);

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