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28 May 1999 Artificial muscles working in aqueous solutions or in air
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Macroscopic electrochemomechanical devices formed by bilayers or triple layers between electroactive polymers and a non conducting, adherent and flexible poplymer, able to describe angular movements in liquid electrolytes under electrochemical control are presented. Using a polymeric electrolyte, able to conduct ions, sandwiched between two polypyrrole layers, a muscle working in air was constructed. Any of those devices work under electrochemical control of the conformational changes occurring in polymeric chains. They act simultaneously as actuators and sensors. Similitudes with natural muscles are underlined.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Toribio Fernandez Otero, Igor Cantero, Jose Maria Sansinena, and Marco-Aurelio De Paoli "Artificial muscles working in aqueous solutions or in air", Proc. SPIE 3669, Smart Structures and Materials 1999: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices, (28 May 1999);

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