This paper presents the recent research on impedance-based structural health monitoring technique at Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. The basic principle behind this technique is to use high frequency structural excitation (typically greater than 30 kHz) through the surface-bonded piezoelectric sensor/actuator to detect changes in structural point impedance due to the presence of damage. Two examples are presented in this paper to explore its effectiveness to the practical field applications. First, the possibility of implementing the impedance-based health monitoring technique to detect damage on massive, dense structures was investigated. The test structure considered is a massive, circular, three-inch thick steel steam header pipe. Practical issues such as effects of external boundary condition changes and the extent of damage that could be detected were the issues to be identified. By the consistent repetition of tests, it has been determined that this impedance-based technique is able to detect a very small size of hole (4 X 20 mm), which can be considered the mass loss of 0.002% of entire structure. The second example includes the implementation of this technique in the high temperature applications. With high temperature piezoceramic materials, which have a Curie temperature higher than 2000 degrees F, experiments were performed to detect damage on the bolted joint structure in the temperature range of 900 - 1100 degrees F. Through the experimental investigations, the applicability of this impedance-based health monitoring technique to monitor such an extreme application was verified, with some practical issues need to be resolved. Data collected from the tests proved beyond a doubt the capability of this technology to detect both existing and imminent damage.