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26 July 1999 Optical extension at the 193-nm wavelength
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Abstract
Lithography at 193nm is the first optical lithography technique that will be introduced for manufacturing of technology levels. where the required dimensions are smaller than the actual wavelength. This paper explores several techniques to extend 193nm to low k1 lithography. Most attention is given to binary mask solution in at 130nm dimensions, where k1 is 0.4. Various strong and Gaussian quadrupole illuminators were designed, manufactured and tested for this application. Strong quadrupoles show that largest DOF improvements. The drawback however, is that these strong quadrupoles are very duty cycle and dimensions specific, resulting in large proximity biases between different duty cycles. Due to their design, Gaussian quadrupoles sample much wider frequency ranges, resulting in less duty cycles specific DOF improvements and less proximity basis. At sub-130nm dimensions, strong phase shift masks provide significant latitude improvements, when compared to binary masks with quadrupole illumination. However, differences in dose to size for different duty cycles were up to 25 percent. For definition of contact holes, linewidth biasing through silylation, a key feature of the CARL bi-layer resist approach, demonstrated significant DOF latitude improvements compared to SLR at 140nm and 160nm contact holes.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Peter Zandbergen, Martin McCallum, Gilles R. Amblard, Wolf-Dieter Domke, Bruce W. Smith, Lena Zavyalova, and John S. Petersen "Optical extension at the 193-nm wavelength", Proc. SPIE 3679, Optical Microlithography XII, (26 July 1999); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.354343
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