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12 July 1999 Imaging artifacts due to pixel spatial sampling smear and amplitude quantization in two-dimensional visible imaging arrays
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Abstract
In this paper, we studied the imaging effects of pixel spatial-sampling and scan-velocity mismatch in 2D visible image sensors. these effects were examined experimentally by projecting bar pattern sequences of varying spatial frequency on two different devices and by comparing their outputs with the results of a corresponding imaging simulation. Beat patterns and aliased spatial frequencies were observed by imaging the bar pattern sequences onto an area CMOS `active pixel' sensor. Image phase reversal effects were observed by inducing a systematic mismatch between the scan velocity of a bar pattern `sunburst' areal image and the corresponding velocity of the clocked image charge in a time-delay-and-integration CCD image sensor. The visual image effects of an analog-to-digital converter's (ADC) pixel amplitude quantization, specifically integral nonlinearity (INL) and differential nonlinearity (DNL) were studied using two very different input images. The INL and DNL patterns, obtained from measurements on a 14-bit, video ADC were scaled and then imbedded in the response characteristics of these two images. Various scaling of these INL and DNL patterns were used. the results obtained show artifacts varying in impact from insignificant to clearly degrading.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Terrence S. Lomheim, Jeffrey D. Kwok, Tracy E. Dutton, Ralph M. Shima, Jerris F. Johnson, Richard H. Boucher, and Christopher J. Wrigley "Imaging artifacts due to pixel spatial sampling smear and amplitude quantization in two-dimensional visible imaging arrays", Proc. SPIE 3701, Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing X, (12 July 1999); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.352987
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