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27 September 1999 Integrating geometrical and physical optics with the lensgroup operator method
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Abstract
Some years ago Lawrence and Moore developed the basic principles of integrating geometrical and physical optics by incorporating conventional ray-based methods into the diffraction-based program GLAD. This paper discusses more specifically the difficulties in ray-based methods and hybrid methods in which physical optics is encapsulated within a ray-based program. Phase singularities are common in physical optics analysis and are shown to pose severe difficulties for ray-based methods. Time-averaged, through- focus behavior of a clipped excimer beam is taken as an illustration of a problem which can not be solved by ray- based methods but is readily solved with the lensgroup operator method of Lawrence and Moore. Beam reshaping is taken as a second example where diffractive effects should be considered.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
George N. Lawrence "Integrating geometrical and physical optics with the lensgroup operator method", Proc. SPIE 3780, Optical Design and Analysis Software, (27 September 1999); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.363783
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