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4 October 1999 Design and synthesis of new optical-power-limiting chromophores with enhanced two-photon absorption
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There has been considerable recent interest in the design of new organic chromophores, oligomers and polymers with potentially large two-photon cross-sections for a variety of applications that span such diverse areas as photo-dynamic therapy to optical power limiting of nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses. One particularly attractive system is based on poly[p-phenylene vinylene] (PPV) oligomers containing electron-donating substituents. We have recently designed and synthesized several PPV dimers with bis- diphenylamino) donor groups attached to the terminal phenyl rings, and have demonstrated that these materials have very large two-photon cross-sections for nanosecond pulses. It is probable that these enhanced cross-sections are due to excited state absorption following the initial two-photon absorption. We have also examined bis- (diphenylamino)diphenylpolyenes, and more recently extended our design concept to dendrimer structures based on bis- (diphenylamino)stilbene repeat units. Initial studies on the dendrimer structures and bis-(diphenylamino)-PPV dimer reveal extremely large two-photon cross-sections which we have also ascribed to probable excited-state absorption. The efficacy of this design approach will be discussed, as well as projected future design paradigms for even greater TPA enhancement.
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Charles W. Spangler, El Hadj Elandaloussi, Martin K. Casstevens, Deepak N. Kumar, John F. Weibel, and Ryszard Burzynski "Design and synthesis of new optical-power-limiting chromophores with enhanced two-photon absorption", Proc. SPIE 3798, Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, (4 October 1999);

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