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27 October 1999 Ormosil system with broadly tunable refractive index for optical waveguides
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Organically modified silicates (ormosils) derived from acid catalyzed sol-gel processing of a mixture of phenyl triethoxysilane (PhTES), methyl triethoxysilane (MTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) are being assessed for photonics applications. PhTES and MTES introduce phenyl (C6H5-) and methyl (CH3-) groups onto the silica backbone, respectively increasing and decreasing the refractive index, so that the refractive index can be tuned from 1.40 to 1.55 (at 633 nm) by varying the composition. Films are deposited onto silicon or glass substrates and dried under nitrogen at or below 200 degree(s)C to remove residual water and ethanol; we present refractive index and absorption data before and after drying for several compositions. Although the triethoxysilane (i.e. MTES and PhTES) content should be maximized to inhibit cracking caused by drying-induced stress, some TEOS appears to be beneficial for mechanical stability. Crack-free films dried at 200 degree(s)C have been produced with thickness up to 15 micrometers .
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Graham R. Atkins, R. Maryla Krolikowska, and Anna Samoc "Ormosil system with broadly tunable refractive index for optical waveguides", Proc. SPIE 3803, Materials and Devices for Photonic Circuits, (27 October 1999);

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