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2 June 2000 Presence: concept, determinants, and measurement
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Proceedings Volume 3959, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging V; (2000)
Event: Electronic Imaging, 2000, San Jose, CA, United States
The concept of presence, i.e. the sensation of 'being there' in a mediated environment, has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and is becoming increasingly relevant both to broadcasters and display developers. Although research into presence is still at an early stage of development, there is a consensus that presence has multiple determinants. To identify and test which parameters affect presence, a reliable, robust and valid means of measuring presence is required. In this paper, we describe the categories of factors thought to have an impact on presence. Furthermore, we present an overview of various approaches taken to measuring presence, which can be divided into two general categories: subjective measures and objective corroborative measures. Since presence is a subjective experience, the most direct way of assessment is through users' subjective report. This approach has serious limitations however, and should be used judiciously. Objective measures, such as postural, physiological or social responses to media, can be used to corroborate subjective measures, thereby overcoming some of their limitations. At present, the most promising direction for presence measurement is to develop and use an aggregate measure of presence that is comprised of both subjective and objective components, tailored to the specific medium under study.
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Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn, Huib de Ridder, Jonathan Freeman, and Steve E. Avons "Presence: concept, determinants, and measurement", Proc. SPIE 3959, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging V, (2 June 2000);

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