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18 May 2000 Early developments of PACS in Europe
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Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) is a concept followed since the early 1980's by the radiological community as a future method of practicing radiology. Some of the seminal papers for PACS were published in 1982. Although publications by Duerinckx, Maguiere, Horii, and Dwyer are generally considered to be the first PACS description in literature, there have been descriptions of similar concepts before the 1980's, e.g. relating to workstations for medical image processing and to IMAC (Image Management and Communication). Soon after the first SPIE international symposium on PACS in the USA, first attempts of a filmless radiological department were made in Europe. The countries particularly active were the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Italy, Austria, Germany, and the U.K.
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Heinz U. Lemke, Bart M. ter Haar Romeny, Michel Osteaux, Guenther Gell, Oscar Craig, Bernard Gibaud, and Davide Caramella "Early developments of PACS in Europe", Proc. SPIE 3980, Medical Imaging 2000: PACS Design and Evaluation: Engineering and Clinical Issues, (18 May 2000);

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