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13 May 2000 Development of an air-coupled ultrasonic sensor for high-pressure and temperature applications
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The focus of this investigation is to develop an Ultrasonic Position Indication System (UPIS) that is capable of determining one-dimensional target location in a steel- contained pressurized gaseous medium. The combination of the very high acoustical impedance of steel (45.4 MRay1) and the very low impedance of air (0.0004MRay1) causes extremely high- energy losses upon transmission. In addition to the energy loss, propagation through a steel plate produces many internal reflections in the plate. The strategy of this investigation is to develop a self-contained ultrasonic transducer that is capable of replacing a small portion of a high temperature- pressure boundary. In building such a transducer, sufficient acoustic matching layers for the steel-gas interface, a mechanically and acoustically competent housing, a sufficient piezoelectric element, and backing materials are all developed and tested. The results include a successful housing design, high-temperature acoustic matching layers, and subsequent successful waveforms. Target location through 9.6'(24.5 cm) of ambient air was successful, with a steel pressure boundary 0.4566' (1.1598 cm) thick, and using one matching layer.
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Jared S. Sandman and Bernhard R. Tittmann "Development of an air-coupled ultrasonic sensor for high-pressure and temperature applications", Proc. SPIE 3993, Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Materials and Composites IV, (13 May 2000);

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