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5 May 2000 Low-frequency electromagnetic technique for nondestructive evaluation
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We have developed a low frequency electromagnetic technique using sensitive room temperature magnetoresistive (MR) sensors for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. These applications include the NDE of medical implants and aircraft structures, the detection of cracks and corrosion in metals, the detection of ferromagnetic foreign objects in the eye and the brain, and the noninvasive determination of iron content in the liver. Our technique consists of applying a low frequency ac magnetic field to the sample and detecting the sample response. The low excitation frequency enables us to probe deep into metal structures; the sensitivity of the MR sensor allows us to detect weak responses from the sample without applying too large an excitation field, particularly in the case of human tissue. The MR sensors are small and relatively inexpensive compared to other sensitive magnetic field sensors such as fluxgates and superconducting quantum interference devices or SQUIDs; hence the resulting NDE instrument will be compact and cost-efficient, enabling its commercialization for practical applications. In this paper, we focus primarily on NDE of orthopedic implants.
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Yacine Dalichaouch, Alan L. Singsaas, Firas Putris, Alexander R. Perry, and Peter V. Czipott "Low-frequency electromagnetic technique for nondestructive evaluation", Proc. SPIE 3994, Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware IV, (5 May 2000);

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